Werle; Donald K. , Hillside, IL
Kasparas; Romas , Riverside, IL
Katz; Sidney , Chicago, IL
The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy, Washington,
Issued/Filed Dates: Aug. 12, 1975 / July 22, 1974
Application Number: US1974000490610
IPC Class: B64D 1/16;
Class: Current: 244/136; 040/213; 116/214; 241/005;
Original: 244/136; 040/213; 116/114.F; 241/005;
Field of Search: 244/136 040/213 241/5,29 222/3;4 239/171 116/28 R,114
R,114 F,114 N,124 R,124 B,124 C
Legal Status: Gazette date Code Description (remarks) List all possible codes for US
Aug. 12, 1975 A Patent
July 22, 1974 AE Application data

Light scattering pigment powder particles, surface treated to minimize inparticle cohesive forces, are dispensed from a jet mill deagglomerator as separate single particles to produce a powder contrail having maximum visibility or radiation scattering ability for a given weight material.
Attorney, Agent, or Firm: Sciascia; Richard S.; St. Amand; Joseph M.; Primary/Assistant Examiners: Blix; Trygve M.; Kelmachter; Barry L.

U.S. References: Show the 1 patent that references this one
Patent Issued Inventor(s)
US1619183* 3 /1927 Bradner et al.
US2045865* 6 /1936 Morey
US2591988* 4 /1952 Willcox
US3531310 9 /1970 Goodspeed et al. PRODUCTION OF IMPROVED METAL
USR0015771* 2 /1924 Savage
* some details unavailable

1. Contrail generation apparatus for producing a powder contrail having
maximum radiation
scattering ability for a given weight material, comprising:

a. an aerodynamic housing;
b. a jet tube means passing through said housing, said tube means having an inlet at a forward end of said housing and an exhaust at a rearward end thereof;
c. a powder storage means in said housing;
d. a deagglomeration means also in said housing;
e. means connecting said powder storage means with said deagglomeration
means for feeding
radiation scattering powder from said powder storage means to said deagglomeration means;
f. the output of said deagglomeration means dispensing directly into said jet tube means for
exhausting deagglomerated powder particles into the atmosphere to form a contrail; and
h. means for controlling the flow of said powder from said storage means to said deagglomeration means.

2. Apparatus as in claim 1 wherein said jet tube means is a ram air jet tube.
3. Apparatus as in claim 1 wherein an upstream deflector baffle is provided at the output of said
deagglomeration means into said jet tube means to produce a venturi effect for minimizing back
pressure on said powder feeding means.
4. Apparatus as in claim 1 wherein said deagglomerator means comprises:

a. means for subjecting powder particles from said powder storage means to a hammering action to aerate and precondition the powder; and
b. a jet mill means to further deagglomerate the powder into separate particles.

5. Apparatus as in claim 4 wherein pressurized gas means is provided for operating said
deagglomeration means.
6. Apparatus as in claim 1 wherein said radiation scattering powder
particles are titanium
dioxide pigment having a median particle size of about 0.3 microns.
7. Apparatus as in claim 1 wherein said radiation scattering powder
particles have a coating of extremely fine hydrophobic colloidal silica thereon to minimize interparticle cohesive forces.
8. Apparatus as in claim 1 wherein the formulation of said powder consists of 85% by weight of
TiO2 pigment of approximately 0.3 micron media particle size, 10% by weight of colloidal silica of
0.007 micron primary particle size, and 5% by weight of silica gel having an average particle size of 4.5 microns.
9. The method of producing a light radiation scattering contrail, comprising:

a. surface treating light scattering powder particles to minimize
interparticle cohesive forces;
b. deagglomerating said powder particles in two stages prior to dispensing into a jet tube
by subjecting said powder particles to a hammering action in the first stage to aerate and
precondition the powder, and by passing said powder through a jet mill in the second stage
to further deagglomerate the powder;
c. dispensing the deagglomerated powder from the jet mill directly into a jet tube for
exhausting said powder into the atmosphere, thus forming a contrail.

10. A method as in claim 9 wherein said light scattering powder particles is titanium dioxide pigment.
11. A method as in claim 9 wherein said powder particles are treated with a coating of extremely
fine hydrophobic colloidal silica to minimize interparticle cohesive forces.
12. A method as in claim 11 wherein said treated powder particles are further protected with a silica gel powder.



The present invention relates to method and apparatus for contrail generation and the like. An earlier known method in use for contrail generation involves oil smoke trails produced by injecting liquid oil directly into the hot jet exhaust of an aircraft target vehicle. The oil vaporizes and recondenses being the aircraft producing a brilliant white trail. Oil smoke trail production requires a minimum of equipment; and, the material is low in cost and readily available. However, oil smoke requires a heat source to vaporize the liquid oil and not all aircraft target vehicles, notably towed targets, have such a heat source. Also, at altitudes above about 25,000 feet oil smoke visibility degrades rapidly.


The present invention is for a powder generator requiring no heat source to emit a "contrail" with sufficient visibility to aid in visual acquisition of an aircraft target vehicle and the like. The term "contrail" was adopted for convenience in identifying the visible powder trail of this invention. Aircraft target vehicles are used to simulate aerial threats for missile tests and often fly at altitudes between 5,000 and 20,000 feet at speeds of 300 and 400 knots or more. The present invention is also suitable for use in other aircraft vehicles to generate contrails or reflective screens for any desired purpose. The powder contail generator is normally carried on an aircraft in a pod containing a ram air tube and powder feed hopper. Powder particles, surface treated to minimize interparticle cohesive forces are fed from the hopper to a deagglomerator and then to the ram air tube for dispensing as separate single particles to produce a contrail having maximum visibility for a given weight material. Other object, advantages and novel features of the invention will become apparent from the following detailed description of the invention when considered in conjunction with the accompanying drawing.

Drawing Descriptions:


FIG. 1 is a schematic sectional side-view of a powder contrail generator of the present invention.


The powder contail generator in pod 10, shown in FIG. 1, is provided with a powder feed hopper 12 positioned in the center section of the pod and which feeds a powder 13 to a deagglomerator 14 by means of screw conveyors 16 across the bottom of the hopper. The deagglomerator 14 produces two stages of action. In the first stage of deagglomeration, a shaft 18 having projecting radial rods 19 in compartment 20 is rotated by an air motor 21, or other suitable drive means. The shaft 18 is rotated at about 10,000 rpm, for example. As powder 13 descends through the first stage compartment 20 of the deagglomeration chamber, the hammering action of rotating rods 19 serves to aerate and precondition the powder before the second stage of deagglomeration takes place in the jet mill section 22. In the jet mill 22, a plurality of radial jets 24 (e.g., six 0.050 inch diamter radial jets) direct nitrogen gas (at e.g., 120 psig) inward to provide energy for further deagglomeration of the powder. The N2, or other suitable gas, is provided from storage tanks 25 and 26, for example, in the pod.

The jet mill 22 operates in a similar manner to commercial fluid energy mills except that there is no provision for recirculation of oversize particles. Tests with the deagglomerator show that at a feed rate of approximately 11/2 lb/min, treated titanium dioxide powder pigment is effectively dispersed as single particles with very few agglomerates evident.

The nitrogen gas stored in cylinder tanks 25 and 26 is charged to 1800 psig, for example. Two stages of pressure reduction, for example, by pressure reduction valves 28 and 29, bring the final delivery pressure at the radial jets 24 and to the air motor 21 to approximately 120 psig. A solenoid valve 30 on the 120 psig line is connected in parallel with the electric motor 32 which operates the powder feeder screws 16 for simultaneous starting and running of the powder feed, the air motor and the jet mill deagglomerator.

Air enters ram air tube 34 at its entrance 35 and the exhaust from the jet mill deagglomerator passes directly into the ram air tube. At the deagglomerator exhaust 36 into ram air tube 34, an upstream deflector baffle 38 produces a venturi effect which minimizes back pressure on the powder feed system. The powder is then jetted from the exhaust end 40 of the ram air tube to produce a contrail. A pressure equalization tube, not shown, can be used to connect the top of the closed hopper 12 to the deagglomeration chamber 14. A butterfly valve could be provided at the powder hopper outlet 39 to completely isolate and seal off the powder supply when not in use. Powder 13 could then be stored in hopper 12 for several weeks, without danger of picking up excessive moisture, and still be adequately dispensed.

Preparation of the light scatter powder 13 is of a critical importance to production of a powder "contrail" having maximum visibility for a given weight of material. It is essential that the pigment powder particles be dispensed as separate single particles rather than as agglomerates of two or more particles. The powder treatment produces the most easily dispersed powder through the use of surface treatments which minimize interparticle cohesive forces. Titanium dioxide pigment was selected as the primary light scattering material because of its highly efficient light scattering ability and commercially available pigment grades. Titanium dioxide pigment (e.g., DuPont R--931) with a median particle size of about 0.3µ has a high bulk density and is not readily aerosolizable as a submicron cloud without the consumption of a large amount of deagglomeration energy. In order to reduce the energy requirement for deagglomeration, the TiO2 powder is specially treated with a hydrophobic colloidal silica which coats and separates the individual TiO2 pigment particles. The extremely fine particulate nature (0.007µ primary particle size) of Cobot S--101 Silanox grade, for example, of colloidal silica minimizes the amount needed to coat and separate the TiO2 particles, and the hydrophobic surface minimizes the affinity of the powder for absorbtion of moisture from the atmosphere. Adsorbed moisture in powders causes liquid bridges at interparticle contacts and it then becomes necessary to overcome the adsorbed-liquid surface tension forces as well as the weaker Van der Waals' forces before the particles can be separated.

The Silanox treated titanium dioxide pigment is further protected from the deleterious effects of adsorbed moisture by incorporation of silica gel. The silica gel preferentially adsorbs water vapor that the powder may be exposed to after drying and before use. The silica gel used is a powder product, such as Syloid 65 from the W. R Grace and Co., Davison Chemical Division, and has an average particle size about 4.5µ and a large capacity for moisture at low humidities.

A typical powder composition used is shown in Table 1. This formulation was blended intimately with a Patterson-Kelley Co. twin shell dry LB-model LB--2161 with intensifier. Batches of 1500 g were blended for 15 min. each and packaged in 5-lb cans. The bulk density of the blended powder is 0.22 g/cc. Since deagglomeration is facilitated by having the powder bone dry, the powder should be predried before sealing the cans. In view of long periods (e.g., about 4 months) between powder preparation and use it is found preferable to spread the powder in a thin layer in an open container and place in a 400°F over two days before planned usage. The powder is removed and placed in the hopper about 2 hours before use.

Table 1
Ingredient % by Weight
TiO2 (e.g., DuPont R-931)
median particle size 0.3µ
Colloidal Silica (e.g., Cabot S-101 Silanox)
primary particle size 0.007µ
Silica gel (e.g., Syloid 65)
average particle size 4.5µ

Other type powder compositions can also be used with the apparatus described herein. For example, various powder particles which reflect electromagnetic radiation can be dispensed as a chaff or the like from the contrail generator.

Obviously many modifications and variations of the present invention are possible in the light of the above teachings. It is therefore to be understood that within the scope of the appended claims the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described.


Radio Communication Utilizing the Base of a Striated Barium Plasma

A0 (This is hit 16 of 25.) A0

AD Number: ADA072167
Title: Radio Communication Utilizing the Base of a Striated Barium Plasma.
Descriptive Note: Topical rept. Apr-Jul 78,
Personal Authors: Fulks,G. J. ;Scott,L. D. ;Sowle,D. H. ;Wortman,W. R. ;
Report Date: JUL 1978
Pages: 43 PAGES20
Report Number: MRC-R-401-R
Contract Number: DNA001-78-C-0237
Project Number: S99QAXH TASKNUMBER: B053
Monitor Acronym: DNA,SBI
Monitor Series: 4670T,AD-E300 465
Identifiers: Avefria operations, Barium clouds, Cloud bases, Base
reflection, PE62704H, WU09
Abstract: In conjunction with the DNA barium releases, Avefria I and II, an
experiment was undertaken to determine if radio communication was possible
off the base of a striated plasma created by these barium releases. A
transmitting station was set up to broadcast a steady signal at two HF
frequencies toward the base of the barium striations and two receiving
stations listened for signal returns on the two frequencies. (The chosen
geometry prevented reflections off the sides of the barium cloud from
affecting the experiment). One station heard substantial returns while the
other heard nothing. Data from the first station provide an estimate of the
reflection cross sections for the base of the striated barium cloud. The
negative result from the second station arises partly from limited
sensitivity of equipment but the upper limit on cross section was less than
that seen from the first station. This suggests a directional character for
the signal reflected from the base of the cloud.
Source Code: 406548


barium reference in haarp patent
Patent Number: 4,686,605 Date of Patent: Aug. 11, 1987

Other proposals which have been advanced for altering existing
belts of trapped electrons and ions and/or establishing similar
artificial belts include injecting charged particles from a
satellite carrying a payload of radioactive beta-decay material
or alpha emitters; and injecting charged particles from a
satellite-borne electron accelerator. Still another approach is
described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,042,196 wherein a low energy ionized
gas, e.g., hydrogen, is released from a synchronous orbiting
satellite near the apex of a radiation belt which is
naturally-occurring in the earth's magnetosphere to produce a
substantial increase in energetic particle precipitation and,
under certain conditions, produce a limit in the number of
particles that can be stably trapped. This precipitation effect
arises from an enhancement of the whistler-mode and ion-cyclotron
mode interactions that result from the ionized gas or "cold
plasma" injection.

It has also been proposed to release large clouds of barium in
the magnetosphere so that photoionization will increase the cold
plasma density, thereby producing electron precipitation through
enhanced whistler-mode interaction.

However, in all of the above-mentioned approaches, the mechanisms
involved in triggering the change in the trapped particle
phenomena must be actually positioned within the affected zone,
e.g., the magnetosphere, before they can be actuated to effect
the desired change.



Barium is a chemical element. It has the symbol Ba, and atomic number 56. Barium is a soft silvery metallic alkaline earth metal. It is never found in nature in its pure form due to its reactivity with air. Its oxide is historically known as baryta but it reacts with water and carbon dioxide and is not found as a mineral. The most common naturally occurring minerals are the very insoluble barium sulfate, BaSO4 (barite), and barium carbonate, BaCO3 (witherite). Benitoite is a rare gem containing barium.

* 1 Notable characteristics
* 2 Applications
* 3 History
* 4 Occurrence
* 5 Compounds
* 6 Isotopes
* 7 Precautions
* 8 References
* 9 External links

Notable characteristics

Barium is a metallic element that is chemically similar to calcium but more reactive. This metal oxidizes very easily when exposed to air and is highly reactive with water or alcohol, producing hydrogen gas. Burning in air or oxygen produces not just barium oxide (BaO) but also the peroxide. Simple compounds of this heavy element are notable for their high specific gravity. This is true of the most common barium-bearing mineral, its sulfate barite BaSO4, also called 'heavy spar' due to the high density.


Barium has some medical and many industrial uses:

* Barium compounds, and especially barite (BaSO4), are extremely important to the petroleum industry. Barite is used in drilling mud, a weighting agent in drilling new oil wells.
* Barium sulfate is used as a radiocontrast agent for X-ray imaging of the digestive system ("barium meals" and "barium enemas").
* Barium carbonate is a useful rat poison and can also be used in making bricks. Unlike the sulfate, the carbonate dissolves in stomach acid, allowing it to be poisonous.
* An alloy with nickel is used in spark plug wire.
* Barium oxide is used in a coating for the electrodes of fluorescent lamps, which facilitates the release of electrons.
* The metal is a "getter" in vacuum tubes, to remove the last traces of oxygen.
* Barium carbonate is used in glassmaking. Being a heavy element, barium increases the refractive index and luster of the glass.
* Barite is used extensively in rubber production.
* Barium nitrate and chlorate give green colors in fireworks.
* Impure barium sulfide phosphoresces after exposure to the light.
* Lithopone, a pigment that contains barium sulfate and zinc sulfide, is a permanent white that has good covering power, and does not darken in when exposed to sulfides.
* Barium peroxide can be used as a catalyst to start an aluminothermic reaction when welding rail tracks together. It can also be used in green tracer ammunition.
* Barium titanate was proposed in 2007[2] to be used in next generation battery technology for electric cars.
* Barium Fluoride is used in infrared applications.
* Barium is a key element in YBCO superconductors.


Barium (Greek barys, meaning "heavy") was first identified in 1774 by Carl Scheele and extracted in 1808 by Sir Humphry Davy in England. The oxide was at first called barote, by Guyton de Morveau, which was changed by Antoine Lavoisier to baryta, from which "barium" was derived to describe the metal.


Because barium quickly becomes oxidized in air, it is difficult to obtain this metal in its pure form. It is primarily found in and extracted from the mineral barite which is crystallized barium sulfate. Because barite is so insoluble, it cannot be used directly for the preparation of other barium compounds. Instead, the ore is heated with carbon to reduce it to barium sulfide[1]

BaSO4 + 2C °ú BaS + 2CO2

The barium sulfide is then hydrolyzed or reacted with acids to form other barium compounds such as the chloride, nitrate, and carbonate.

Barium is commercially produced through the electrolysis of molten barium chloride (BaCl2) Isolation (* follow):

(cathode) Ba2+* + 2e- °ú Ba
(anode) Cl-* °ú Å0Ü5Cl2 (g) + e-


The most important compounds are barium peroxide, barium chloride, sulfate, carbonate, nitrate, and chlorate.


Main article: isotopes of barium

Naturally occurring barium is a mix of seven stable isotopes. There are twenty-two isotopes known, but most of these are highly radioactive and have half-lives in the several millisecond to several minute range. The only notable exceptions are 133Ba which has a half-life of 10.51 years, and 137mBa (2.55 minutes).


All water or acid soluble barium compounds are extremely poisonous. At low doses, barium acts as a muscle stimulant, while higher doses affect the nervous system, causing cardiac irregularities, tremors, weakness, anxiety, dyspnea and paralysis. This may be due to its ability to block potassium ion channels which are critical to the proper function of the nervous system.

Barium sulfate can be taken orally because it is highly insoluble in water, and is eliminated completely from the digestive tract. Unlike other heavy metals, barium does not bioaccumulate.[2] However, inhaled dust containing barium compounds can accumulate in the lungs, causing a benign condition called baritosis.

Oxidation occurs very easily and, to remain pure, barium should be kept under a petroleum-based fluid (such as kerosene) or other suitable oxygen-free liquids that exclude air.

Barium acetate could lead to death in high doses. Marie Robards poisoned her father with the substance in Texas in 1993. She was tried and convicted in 1996.


1. Toxicological Profile for Barium and Barium Compounds. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, CDC. 2007. [1]
2. Toxicity Profiles, Ecological Risk Assessment | Region 5 Superfund | US EPA

External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Look up barium in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

* ®C Barium
* Elementymology & Elements Multidict

Periodic Table[show]
H He
Li Be B C N O F Ne
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Uub Uut Uuq Uup Uuh Uus Uuo

Alkali metals Alkaline earth metals Lanthanides Actinides Transition elements Other metals Metalloids Other nonmetals Halogens Noble gases

Retrieved from ""
Categories: Chemical elements | Alkaline earth metals | Toxicology | Barium | Barium compounds | Barium minerals


Chronic Barium Intoxication
Chronic barium intoxication disrupts sulphated proteoglycan synthesis: a
hypothesis for the origins of multiple sclerosis.
Purdey M.
High Barn Farm, Elworthy, Taunton, Somerset TA43PX, UK.
High level contamination by natural and industrial sources of the alkali
earth metal, barium (Ba) has been identified in the ecosystems/workplaces
that are associated with high incidence clustering of multiple sclerosis
(MS) and other neurodegenerative diseases such as the transmissible
spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
Analyses of ecosystems supporting the most renowned MS clusters in
Saskatchewan, Sardinia, Massachusetts, Colorado, Guam, NE Scotland
demonstrated consistently elevated levels of Ba in soils (mean: 1428 ppm)
and vegetation (mean: 74 ppm) in relation to mean levels of 345 and 19 ppm
recorded in MS-free regions adjoining. The high levels of Ba stemmed from
local quarrying for Ba ores and/or use of Ba in
paper/foundry/welding/textile/oil and gas well related industries, as well
as from the use of Ba as an atmospheric aerosol spray for
enhancing/refracting the signalling of radio/radar waves along military jet
flight paths, missile test ranges, etc. It is proposed that chronic
contamination of the biosystem with the reactive types of Ba salts can
initiate the pathogenesis of MS; due to the conjugation of Ba with free
sulphate, which subsequently deprives the endogenous sulphated proteoglycan
molecules (heparan sulfates) of their sulphate co partner, thereby
disrupting synthesis of S-proteoglycans and their crucial role in the
fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling which induces oligodendrocyte
progenitors to maintain the growth and structural integrity of the myelin
sheath. Loss of S-proteoglycan activity explains other key facets of MS
pathogenesis; such as the aggregation of platelets and the proliferation of
superoxide generated oxidative stress. Ba intoxications disturb the
sodium-potassium ion pump--another key feature of the MS profile. The
co-clustering of various neurodegenerative diseases in these Ba-contaminated
ecosystems suggests that the pathogenesis of all of these diseases could
pivot upon a common disruption of the sulphated proteoglycan-growth factor
mediated signalling systems. Individual genetics dictates which specific
disease emerges at the end of the day.
PMID: 15082100 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


A Partial List Of Patents Pertaining to ENMOD

Thanks to Lorie Kramer the Seektress

1338343 - April 27, 1920 - Process And Apparatus For The Production of Intense Artificial Clouds, Fogs, or Mists
1619183 - March 1, 1927 - Process of Producing Smoke Clouds From Moving Aircraft
1631753 - June 7, 1927 - Electric Heater - Referenced in 3990987
1665267 - April 10, 1928 - Process of Producing Artificial Fogs
1892132 - December 27, 1932 - Atomizing Attachment For Airplane Engine Exhausts
1928963 - October 3, 1933 - Electrical System And Method
1957075 - May 1, 1934 - Airplane Spray Equipment
2097581 - November 2, 1937 - Electric Stream Generator - Referenced in 3990987
2409201 - October 15, 1946 - Smoke Producing Mixture
2476171 - July 18, 1945 - Smoke Screen Generator
2480967 - September 6, 1949 - Aerial Discharge Device
2550324 - April 24, 1951 - Process For Controlling Weather
2510867 - October 9, 1951 - Method of Crystal Formation and Precipitation
2582678 - June 15, 1952 - Material Disseminating Apparatus For Airplanes
2591988 - April 8, 1952 - Production of TiO2 Pigments - Referenced in 3899144
2614083 - October 14, 1952 - Metal Chloride Screening Smoke Mixture
2633455 - March 31, 1953 - Smoke Generator
2688069 - August 31, 1954 - Steam Generator - Referenced in 3990987
2721495 - October 25, 1955 - Method And Apparatus For Detecting Minute Crystal Forming Particles Suspended in a Gaseous Atmosphere
2730402 - January 10, 1956 - Controllable Dispersal Device
2801322 - July 30, 1957 - Decomposition Chamber for Monopropellant Fuel - Referenced in 3990987
2881335 - April 7, 1959 - Generation of Electrical Fields
2908442 - October 13, 1959 - Method For Dispersing Natural Atmospheric Fogs And Clouds
2986360 - May 30, 1962 - Aerial Insecticide Dusting Device
2963975 - December 13, 1960 - Cloud Seeding Carbon Dioxide Bullet
3126155 - March 24, 1964 - Silver Iodide Cloud Seeding Generator - Referenced in 3990987
3127107 - March 31, 1964 - Generation of Ice-Nucleating Crystals
3131131 - April 28, 1964 - Electrostatic Mixing in Microbial Conversions
3174150 - March 16, 1965 - Self-Focusing Antenna System
3234357 - February 8, 1966 - Electrically Heated Smoke Producing Device
3274035 - September 20, 1966 - Metallic Composition For Production of Hydroscopic Smoke
3300721 - January 24, 1967 - Means For Communication Through a Layer of Ionized Gases
3313487 - April 11, 1967 - Cloud Seeding Apparatus
3338476 - August 29, 1967 - Heating Device For Use With Aerosol Containers - Referenced in 3990987
3410489 - November 12, 1968 - Automatically Adjustable Airfoil Spray System With Pump
3429507 - February 25, 1969 - Rainmaker
3432208 - November 7, 1967 - Fluidized Particle Dispenser
3441214 - April 29, 1969 - Method And Apparatus For Seeding Clouds
3445844 - May 20, 1969 - Trapped Electromagnetic Radiation Communications System
3456880 - July 22, 1969 - Method Of Producing Precipitation From The Atmosphere
3518670 June 30, 1970 - Artificial Ion Cloud
3534906 - October 20, 1970 - Control of Atmospheric Particles
3545677 - December 8, 1970 - Method of Cloud Seeding
3564253 - February 16, 1971 - System And Method For Irradiation Of Planet Surface Areas
3587966 - June 28, 1971 - Freezing Nucleation
3601312 - August 24, 1971 - Methods of Increasing The Likelihood oF Precipatation By The Artificial Introduction Of Sea Water Vapor Into The Atmosphere Winward Of An Air Lift Region
3608810 - September 28, 1971 - Methods of Treating Atmospheric Conditions
3608820 - September 20, 1971 - Treatment of Atmospheric Conditions by Intermittent Dispensing of Materials Therein
3613992 - October 19, 1971 - Weather Modification Method
3630950 - December 28, 1971 - Combustible Compositions For Generating Aerosols, Particularly Suitable For Cloud Modification And Weather Control And Aerosolization Process
USRE29142 - This patent is a reissue of patent US3630950 - Combustible compositions for generating aerosols, particularly suitable for cloud modification and weather control and aerosolization process
3659785 - December 8, 1971 - Weather Modification Utilizing Microencapsulated Material
3666176 - March 3, 1972 - Solar Temperature Inversion Device
3677840 - July 18, 1972 - Pyrotechnics Comprising Oxide of Silver For Weather Modification Use
3722183 - March 27, 1973 - Device For Clearing Impurities From The Atmosphere
3769107 - October 30, 1973 - Pyrotechnic Composition For Generating Lead Based Smoke
3784099 - January 8, 1974 - Air Pollution Control Method
3785557 - January 15, 1974 - Cloud Seeding System
3795626 - March 5, 1974 - Weather Modification Process
3808595 - April 30, 1974 - Chaff Dispensing System
3813875 - June 4, 1974 - Rocket Having Barium Release System to Create Ion Clouds In The Upper Atmopsphere
3835059 - September 10, 1974 - Methods of Generating Ice Nuclei Smoke Particles For Weather Modification And Apparatus Therefore
3835293 - September 10, 1974 - Electrical Heating Aparatus For Generating Super Heated Vapors - Referenced in 3990987
3877642 - April 15, 1975 - Freezing Nucleant
3882393 - May 6, 1975 - Communications System Utilizing Modulation of The Characteristic Polarization of The Ionosphere
3896993 - July 29, 1975 - Process For Local Modification of Fog And Clouds For Triggering Their Precipitation And For Hindering The Development of Hail Producing Clouds
3899129 - August 12, 1975 - Apparatus for generating ice nuclei smoke particles for weather modification
3899144 - August 12, 1975 - Powder contrail generation
3940059 - February 24, 1976 - Method For Fog Dispersion
3940060 - February 24, 1976 - Vortex Ring Generator
3990987 - November 9, 1976 - Smoke generator
3992628 - November 16, 1976 - Countermeasure system for laser radiation
3994437 - November 30, 1976 - Broadcast dissemination of trace quantities of biologically active chemicals
4042196 - August 16, 1977 - Method and apparatus for triggering a substantial change in earth characteristics and measuring earth changes
RE29,142 - February 22, 1977 - Reissue of: 03630950 - Combustible compositions for generating aerosols, particularly suitable for cloud modification and weather control and aerosolization process
4035726 - July 12, 1977 - Method of controlling and/or improving high-latitude and other communications or radio wave surveillance systems by partial control of radio wave et al
4096005 - June 20, 1978 - Pyrotechnic Cloud Seeding Composition
4129252 - December 12, 1978 - Method and apparatus for production of seeding materials
4141274 - February 27, 1979 - Weather modification automatic cartridge dispenser
4167008 - September 4, 1979 - Fluid bed chaff dispenser
4347284 - August 31, 1982 - White cover sheet material capable of reflecting ultraviolet rays
4362271 - December 7, 1982 - Procedure for the artificial modification of atmospheric precipitation as well as compounds with a dimethyl sulfoxide base for use in carrying out said procedure
4402480 - September 6, 1983 - Atmosphere modification satellite
4412654 - November 1, 1983 - Laminar microjet atomizer and method of aerial spraying of liquids
4415265 - November 15, 1983 - Method and apparatus for aerosol particle absorption spectroscopy
4470544 - September 11, 1984 - Method of and Means for weather modification
4475927 - October 9, 1984 - Bipolar Fog Abatement System
4600147 - July 15, 1986 - Liquid propane generator for cloud seeding apparatus
4633714 - January 6, 1987 - Aerosol particle charge and size analyzer
4643355 - February 17, 1987 - Method and apparatus for modification of climatic conditions
4653690 - March 31, 1987 - Method of producing cumulus clouds
4684063 - August 4, 1987 - Particulates generation and removal
4686605 - August 11, 1987 - Method and apparatus for altering a region in the earth's atmosphere, ionosphere, and/or magnetosphere
4704942 - November 10, 1987 - Charged Aerosol
4712155 - December 8, 1987 - Method and apparatus for creating an artificial electron cyclotron heating region of plasma
4744919 - May 17, 1988 - Method of dispersing particulate aerosol tracer
4766725 - August 30, 1988 - Method of suppressing formation of contrails and solution therefor
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Below are the first 50 results of a random patent search utilizing the keywords WIRELESS and ANTENNA

1 6,999,795 System and method utilizing dynamic beam forming for wireless communication signals
2 6,999,780 Method and system for determining the altitude of a mobile wireless device
3 6,999,724 Slowing the observed rate of channel fluctuations in a multiple antenna system
4 6,999,044 Reflector antenna system including a phased array antenna operable in multiple modes and related methods
5 6,999,041 Dual frequency antennas and associated down-conversion method
6 6,999,040 Transverse device array phase shifter circuit techniques and antennas
7 6,999,036 Mobile antenna system for satellite communications
8 6,998,937 Controlling a phase delay line by adding and removing a fluidic dielectric
9 6,998,843 RF coil and magnetic resonance imaging apparatus
10 6,997,934 Atherectomy catheter with aligned imager
11 6,997,923 Method and apparatus for EMR treatment
12 6,997,876 Ultrasound clutter filtering with iterative high pass filter selection
13 6,997,863 Thermotherapy via targeted delivery of nanoscale magnetic particles
14 6,997,555 Method for determining vision defects and for collecting data for correcting vision defects of the eye by interaction of a patient with an examiner and apparatus therefor
15 6,996,480 Structural health monitoring system utilizing guided lamb waves embedded ultrasonic structural radar
16 6,996,372 Mobility management-radio resource layer interface system and method for handling dark beam scenarios
17 6,995,884 Fluorinated crosslinked electro-optic materials and electro-optic devices therefrom
18 6,995,728 Dual ridge horn antenna
19 6,995,726 Split waveguide phased array antenna with integrated bias assembly
20 6,995,712 Antenna element
21 6,995,705 System and method for doppler track correlation for debris tracking
22 6,995,561 Multiple channel, microstrip transceiver volume array for magnetic resonance imaging
23 6,995,560 Chemical species suppression for MRI imaging using spiral trajectories with off-resonance correction
24 6,995,559 Method and system for optimized pre-saturation in MR with corrected transmitter frequency of pre-pulses
25 6,995,557 High resolution inductive sensor arrays for material and defect characterization of welds
26 6,993,898 Microwave heat-exchange thruster and method of operating the same
27 6,993,394 System method and apparatus for localized heating of tissue
28 6,993,361 System and method utilizing dynamic beam forming for wireless communication signals
29 6,993,315 Super-regenerative microwave detector
30 6,993,064 Multi-user receiving method and receiver
31 6,992,639 Hybrid-mode horn antenna with selective gain
32 6,992,638 High gain, steerable multiple beam antenna system
33 6,992,632 Low profile polarization-diverse herringbone phased array
34 6,992,621 Wireless communication and beam forming with passive beamformers
35 6,992,539 Method and apparatus of obtaining balanced phase shift
36 6,992,321 Structure and method for fabricating semiconductor structures and devices utilizing piezoelectric materials
37 6,991,917 Spatially directed ejection of cells from a carrier fluid
38 6,990,360 Pattern detection using the Bragg Effect at RF frequencies
39 6,990,338 Mobile wireless local area network and related methods
40 6,990,314 Multi-node point-to-point satellite communication system employing multiple geo satellites
41 6,990,223 Adaptive data differentiation and selection from multi-coil receiver to reduce artifacts in reconstruction
42 6,989,991 Thermal management system and method for electronic equipment mounted on coldplates
43 6,989,799 Antenna assembly including a dual flow rotating union
44 6,989,797 Adaptive antenna for use in wireless communication systems
45 6,989,795 Line-replaceable transmit/receive unit for multi-band active arrays
46 6,989,791 Antenna-integrated printed wiring board assembly for a phased array antenna system
47 6,989,787 Antenna system for satellite communication and method for tracking satellite signal using the same
48 6,989,673 Method and apparatus to reduce RF power deposition during MR data acquisition
49 6,988,411 Fluid parameter measurement for industrial sensing applications using acoustic pressures
50 6,988,026 Wireless and powerless sensor and interrogator