The Global Economy Is Nearing Total Collapse
How long can a snake survive by eating its own tail? This image is very comparable to the crumbling house of cards that is the global economic system of total insanity. Those in power are doing their absolute best to hide the rapidly crumbling pillars of “civilization” and our imploding biosphere. As is outlined in the article below, major car companies are literally buying their own cars in order to boost their bottom line sales numbers. The big lie of improving economic activity is then touted by governments and their completely controlled mainstream media minions as a sign of “improving economic conditions”. The smoke and mirrors reality we have all known is already collapsing and will soon enough be no more. The sooner global populations wake up to this fact and unite in a total change of direction for the human race, the better our collective odds are for survival.
Where the World’s Unsold Cars Go To Die
In the past several years, one of the topics covered in detail on these pages has been the surge in such gimmicks designed to disguise lack of demand and end customer sales, used extensively by US automotive manufacturers, better known as “channel stuffing”, of which General Motors is particularly guilty and whose inventory at dealer lots just hit a new record high. But did you know that when it comes to flat or declining sales and stagnant end demand, channel stuffing is merely the beginning?
Where the World’s Unsold Cars Go To Die (courtesy of Vincent Lewis’ Unsold Cars)
Above is just a few of the thousands upon thousands of unsold cars at Sheerness, United Kingdom. Please do see this on Google Maps….type in Sheerness, United Kingdom. Look to the west coast, below River Thames next to River Medway. Left of A249, Brielle Way.
Timestamp: Friday, May 16th, 2014.
There are hundreds of places like this in the world today and they keep on piling up…
THE WORLDS UNSOLD CAR STOCKPILE
Houston…We have a problem!…Nobody is buying brand new cars anymore! Well they are, but not on the scale they once were. Millions of brand new unsold cars are just sitting redundant on runways and car parks around the world. There, they stay, slowly deteriorating without being maintained.
Below is an image of a massive car park at Swindon, United Kingdom, with thousands upon thousands of unsold cars just sitting there with not a buyer in sight. The car manufacturers have to buy more and more land just to park their cars as they perpetually roll off the production line.
There is proof that the worlds recession is still biting and wont let go. All around the world there are huge stockpiles of unsold cars and they are being added to every day. They have run out of space to park all of these brand new unsold cars and are having to buy acres and acres of land to store them.
The images on this webpage showing all of these unsold cars are just a very small portion of those around the world. There are literally thousands of these “car parks” rammed full of unsold cars in practically every country on the planet. Just in case you were wondering, these images have not been Photoshopped, they are the real deal!
Its hard to believe that there are so many unsold cars in the world but its true. The worse part is that the amount of unsold cars keeps on getting bigger every day.
It would be fair to say that it is becoming a mechanical epidemic of epic proportions. If anybody from outer space is reading this webpage, we here on Earth have too many cars, why not come and buy a few hundred thousand of them for your own planet! (sorry but this is all I can think of)
Below is shown just a few of the 57,000 cars (and growing) that await delivery from their home in the Port of Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. With Google Maps look South of Broening Hwy in Dundalk for the massive expanse of space where all these cars are parked up.
The car industry would never sell these cars at massive reductions in their prices to get rid of them, no they still want every buck. If they were to price these cars for a couple of thousand they would sell them. However, nobody would then buy any expensive cars and then they would end up being unsold. Its quite a pickle we have gotten ourselves into.
Below is shown an image of the Nissan test track in Sunderland United Kingdom. Only it is no longer being used, reason…there are too many unsold cars parked up on it! The amount of cars keeps on piling up on it until its overflowing. Nissan then acquires more land to park up the cars, as they continue to come off the production line.
UPDATE: Currently May 16th, 2014, all of these cars at the Nissan Sunderland test track have disappeared? Now I don’t believe they have all suddenly been sold. I would guess they may have been taken away and recycled to make room for the next vast production run.
Indeed next to that test track and adjacent to the Nissan factory, they are collating again as shown on the Google Maps image below. So where did the last lot go? This is not an employees car park by the way.
None of the images on this webpage are of ordinary car parks at shopping malls, football matches etc. Trust me, they are just mountains and mountains of brand spanking new unsold cars. There is no real reason why you should be driving an old clunker now is there?
The car industry cannot stop making new cars because they would have to close their factories and lay off tens of thousands of employees. This would further add to the recession. Also the domino effect would be catastrophic as steel manufactures would not sell their steel. All the tens of thousands of places where car components are made would also be effected, indeed the world could come to a grinding halt.
Below is shown just a small area of a gigantic car park in Spain where tens of thousands of cars just sit and sunbathe all day.
They are also piling up at the port of Valencia in Spain as seen below. They are either waiting to be exported to…nowhere or have been imported…to go nowhere.
Tens of thousands of cars are still being made every week but hardly any of them are being sold. Nearly every household in developed countries already has a car or even two or three cars parked up on their driveway as it is.
Below is an image of thousands upon thousands of unsold cars parked up on a runway near St Petersburg in Russia. They are all imported from Europe, they are all then parked up and they are all then left to rot. Consequently, the airport is now unusable for its original purpose.
The cycle of buying, using, buying using has been broken, it is now just a case of “using” with no buying. Below is an image of thousands of unsold cars parked up on an disused runway at Upper Heyford, Bicester, Oxfordshire. They are seriously running out of space to store these cars.
It is a sorry state of affairs and there is no answer to it, solutions don’t exist. So the cars just keep on being manufactured and keep on adding to the millions of unsold cars already sitting redundant around the world.
Below are parked tens of thousands of cars at Royal Portbury Docks, Avonmouth, near Bristol in the United Kingdom. If you look on Google Maps and scan around the area at say 200ft you will see nothing but parked up unsold cars. They are absolutley everywhere in that area practically every open space has unsold cars parked up on it.
Below is that same area in Avonmouth, UK, but zoomed out. Every gray space that you see is filled with unsold cars. Anyone want to hazard a guess at how many are there…
As it is, there are more cars than there are people on the planet with an estimated 10 billion roadworthy cars in the world today.
We literally cannot make enough of them. Below are seen just a few of the thousands of Citroen’s parked up at Corby, Northamptonshire in England. They are being added to daily, imported from France but with nowhere else to go once they arrive.
So there they sit, brand spanking new cars, all with a couple of miles on the clock that was consummate with them being driven to their car parks. Below is the latest May 2014 Google Maps image of unsold cars in Corby, Northamptonshire.
Manufacturing more cars than can be sold is against all logic, logistics and economics but it continues day after day, week after week, month after month, year in year out.
Below is shown a recent (April 2014) screen grab from Google Maps of the Italian port of Civitavecchia. All those little specks are a few thousand brand new unsold Peugeots. Just collecting dust and maybe a bit of salty sea spray!
Below, all nice and shiny but with nowhere to go. Red and white and black and silver, purple, pink and blue, all the colors of the rainbow and be they all brand new. Indeed all the colors of the rainbow are down there on those cars, making pretty mosaics, montages of color and still life. Maybe that is all they will now ever be, surreal urban art of the techno production age. Magnificent metal boxes, wasting space and saving grace, all sitting still, because its business at mill.
All around the world these cars just keep on piling up, there is no end in sight. The economy shouts out quite loud that nobody has the money anymore to spend on a new car. The reason being that they are making their “old” cars go on a lot longer. But we cannot stop making them, soon we will run out of space to park them. We are nearly running out of space to drive them that’s for sure!
Below, more cars mount up in the port of Valencia in Spain. They will not be exported as there is nowhere for them to go, so they just sit and rot in their colorful droves.
Gone are the days when the family would have a new car every year, they are now keeping what they have got. It may be fair to say that some families still get a new car every year but its the majority that now do not.
The results are in these images, hundreds of thousands if not millions of cars around the world are driven from their factories, parked up and left.
Could we say that these cars have been left to rot! Maybe, as these cars will certainly rot if they are not bought, driven and cared for. It does not look like they will be sold any day soon, many of them have been standing for over 12 months or even longer and this is detrimental to the car.
Below, as far as the eye can see, right into the background, cars, cars and more cars. But what’s beyond the horizon? Have a guess…Yes that’s right…even more cars! All brand new but with no homes to go to. Do you think they will ever start giving them away, that may be the only radical solution. Who knows, you could soon be getting a free car with every packet of cornflakes.
When a car is left standing idle, all the oil sinks to the bottom of the sump, and then corrosion begins to set in on all the internal engine parts where the oil has drained away.
Cold corrosion is when condensation builds up in the cylinders and rust forms in the bores. The engines would then start to seize and would need to be professionally freed before they could be started. Also the tires start to lose air and the batteries start to go flat, indeed the detrimental list goes on and on.
So the longer they sit there the worse it slowly becomes for them. What is the answer to this? Well they need to be sold and that just isn’t happening.
The epidemic is not improving, it is getting worse. Car manufactureres are constantly coming out with new models with the latest technology in them. Hence prospective buyers of, for example, a new Citroen Xsara Picasso want the latest model, not last years model. Hence all the unsold Citroen Xsara Picasso cars from the previous year will now have even lesser chance of being sold.
The problems then just keep on mounting up. In the end, the unsold cars that are say 2 years old will have no alternative but to be either crushed up, dismantled and/or their parts recycled.
Some car manufacturers moved their production over to China, General Motors and Cadillac are examples of this. They are then shipped over in containers and unloaded at ports. However they are now being told to put a big halt in their import into the U.S.A. as they just can’t sell them in the quantities they would desire. Consequently Chinese car parks are now filling up with brand new American cars. Well nobody in China can afford them on their meagre pittance wages, so there they will stay until our economy improves…which it might do in a few generations.
Source: Zero Hedge
The collapse of China.
We are in May 2017 and for several decades, unlikely oracles, philosophers, economists, politicians gathered together with so-called "strategists" in the world neoliberal choir, constantly have been singing the same refrain: China is the new world power and has become the new engine of the world economy.
Let us examine the inside of the engine that is the object of the praises of the world neoliberal choir.
No sooner have you looked inside the so-called "engine" of the world economy that four disquieting shortcomings proper to damage all the self-confidence of the Central Committee of the Communist Party are revealed in the light of day.
Shortcoming N°1: Severe ontological failure.
At the source of the birth and the real prosperity of a people or a nation are two important imperatives: the resolution of the question of good and evil on the one hand and then the birth of the individual on the other hand.
Put into contact with the new foundations laid down by the Apostle Paul, the West categorically rejected the resolution of the question of good and evil, even to extend of qualifying such rejection as a condition of access to "progress" and thereby signed its inescapable death. Nevertheless, the West discovered and embraced the birth of the individual, the heart of Christianity preached by the Apostle Paul; thus temporarily taking a decisive lead over the other peoples who strove to place the community or the party or some institution at the helm of the world, whereas only the individual acts on behalf of GOD as the originator of history and community.
What do we observe in China?
Like the West, China has not at all addressed the resolution of the question of good and evil. In addition to this tragic mistake already made by the West, China literally stood up against the birth of the individual and against the position of the individual at the command of history.
Ontologically, such a civilization has a precise destiny: collapse.
The only way out for this country is to discover a "new DENG XIAOPING" who will understand that it is necessary to solve the question of good and evil and to put the newborn individual at the helm of history and community.
Shortcoming N°2: China's current revelation in Africa.
Currently (May 2017), the whole world knows that the central committee of the Chinese Communist Party has a serious structural problem that has brooded for several years: overcapacity of industrial production.
The dismantling of many factories and power plants is on the agenda in China and this dismantling is very expensive for China because it must be funded! You would have expected that in the name of an alleged "friendship" between peoples, the Central Committee of the Communist Party would launch a vast program of industrialization of the "brother peoples" of Africa against extraction of African raw materials. Nothing as such has been envisaged. Today's China is practicing barter with African countries. It is the extraction of minerals against the construction (by the Chinese engineers of course) of few roads and monuments; all this seasoned with land grabbing. Of course, we are talking about masonic monuments because the tropical Black freemason installed as a slave at the base of the world pyramid of Satan simply does not know how to build masonic monuments and joyfully entrust the works to the Chinese “brothers” of darkness.
In politics, only acts speak and tell clearly the intentions and profound natures. China-Africa summits are multiplying "plans" that promise to flood the African continent with billions of USD. In fact, the Chinese leaders have grasped the childish nature of our so-called heads of states for whom the history sums up to a few billions of USD promises and a few family photos flaunted in the world's media.
No China-Africa summit has published a plan "factories against minerals" listing the plants that China wants to get rid of by relocation in Africa, given its overcapacity, in exchange for minerals extracted from Africa. In the defense of the Chinese leaders, it must be said that when you face foolish African heads of states who have no spirit within themselves, have no capacity to think and structure history, you have but only one choice remaining: benevolent paternalism and soft imperialism in order to flatter the gigantic ego of the tropical slave whose horizon of thought is limited to the motorcyclists' procession, the screaming sirens and the support motions of the village tribe.
Shortcoming N°3: Monetary dwarf.
Contrary to what is suggested by the huge foreign exchange reserves accumulated in USD, China is a monetary dwarf.
This country has obviously engaged no valid thinking exercise on the nature of money; which is not surprising because it is an ontological shortcoming. Only a people who have discovered the individual is capable of posing the problem of money’s nature and seeking real money. China has contented itself with copying from the West and developing the credit-money (or negative money) which comes into the world only through debt.
Outcome of this? The country is literally strangled by debts and has already mortgaged its future by debt before even completing its erection. Government debt exceeds 200% of GDP, while private debt (nearly 145% of GDP) and part government-owned debt are of such poor quality that the collapse of the Chinese banking system is guaranteed. Even the IMF, which is usually so quick to strike up neo-liberal praises, is cautious and whispers that the level of compromised claims of the Chinese banking system is very well above the already worrying figures that the Central Bank of China dares to publish. Recently, the Central Bank of China even invented a new magic trick that we will gladly call red magic: commercial banks transform their rotten claims into shares in debtor companies and behold the structural adjustment of the whole economy is avoided!
In fact, China does not master money and has never thought about it. Once more; only a people who have discovered the individual is capable of thinking on money’s nature.
Since magic is ineffective in economics, China must restore the bad money which has massively financed its economic take-off and this restitution can only be done by the budget of the Chinese State. But you have seen that public debt already exceeds 200% of GDP. In order to finance the Himalayan stock of bad bank credits (bad money), all that remains is the cut in public spending, the increase of taxes, unemployment of entire portions of the population … Yes you have well recognized this old friend named structural adjustment and this is what awaits China. Paradoxically, the Central Committee of the Communist Party even envisages a growth rate "around" 6.5% for 2017, ignoring completely the bad money that must necessary be financed. You are stupefied, but it is so; Bad money must be financed by severe structural adjustment because there is no magic in economics.
You may think that China's huge foreign exchange reserves could help. This is where you find out that foreign exchange reserves serve only one purpose: buying out of your country! And this is how China massively buys US Treasury bonds with its foreign exchange reserves. It cannot use its foreign exchange reserves posted in USD at banks in New York to finance its huge inventories of bad bank credits. Did you say monetary dwarf?
Shortcoming N°4: Ignorance of systems science.
Since Norbert WIENER, the West has mastered the science of material systems before engulfing then into a mortal error. For having rejected the Judeo Christian foundations laid down by the Apostle Paul, the West has devoted itself to a mortal extrapolation: using the axiomatic of material systems to try building and shaping human systems! Unable to grasp the perfectly quantum foundations of human history that completely defy the logic of natural reasoning, the West who rejected the Judeo Christian foundations of the Apostle Paul runs irresistibly to its collapse. One might have thought that China would examine this tragedy that engulfed the West in order to avoid suffering the same fate. Yet a particularly worrying indicator shows that in fact China has not even perceived the utility of the science of material systems, and is thousands of light years away from suspecting the existence of a science of human systems.
This is not surprising because to discover the science of material systems (even before suspecting the existence of the science of human systems), China must get rid of another ontological taint: the search for harmony. Let us return to the worrying indicator mentioned above.
Consider the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa).
Since 2009, the BRICS summits have been taking place and now, the BRICS roughly represent one-third of the world's GDP. One would have expected that, of course, the BRICS would implement a system to quickly dethrone the supremacy of the US dollar on the world economy. In fact, the design of such a system is not very difficult and its implementation would allow the five currencies of the five BRICS countries to establish themselves as reserve currencies for international trade. Many countries of the world, tired of running after the US dollar, would prioritize their international trade with the BRICS countries and would easily use the five currencies of the five BRICS countries as currencies of international reserves and exchanges. Gradually, the BRICS world monetary platform with its supply of five reserve currencies would supplant the US dollar. Such a well-designed platform with the five central banks of the BRICS as liquidity providers on the central platform would free the entire world economy from the FED, from the major systemic commercial banks headquartered in New York, Frankfurt, London, Geneva and this in less than a decade. Who should take the leadership of BRICS to offer such a BRICS monetary platform to the global economy? China naturally because it is the biggest economic power of the BRICS. But to address this type of revolutionary solution for the world economy, one must discover and master the … science of systems; which prerequisite is an insurmountable mountain for China which ontologically rather seeks … harmony.
Even if such a BRICS platform would come to birth, this would be just a temporary solution aiming at freeing the global economy from a single currency tyranny. The real solution would come at the second stage: getting rid of credit-money which is a negative money and stepping into the era of positive money. But is not this too high and complex for a society which is yet to discover the New Born individual?
There is a deadly need for a "new DENG XIOPING" able to introduce China into the real revolution: that of the New Born individual, the diversity and complexity.
By postponing its structural adjustment and its ontological revolution, China is preparing its collapse as well as the complete annihilation of the world economy.
We hope that as a result of this cataclysm, civilizations all over the earth will return to the fundamentals and finally address the resolution of the question of good and evil, the Birth of the New individual who is the father of community, institutions and history, the question positive money and the nature of labor.
Shalom to all the peoples of the earth.
Reverend Apostle Joseph TOUBI
If you have 100,000 cars unsold on parking lots, this is what you expect to see. And again 100,000 unsold cars at the dealer. With car use declining in a land with 20 million potential car buyers that means only 1% stock.
Bella_Fantasia you make such a great point. The decadence and stupidity of overproducing unwanted, unneeded cars when we have people homeless and hungry in the world must surely leave our Creator disappointed. We as human beings must do a better job than this as stewards of the earth. Whatever is behind this repulsive and greedy behavior- human or not- must be eradicated and corrected as soon as possible.
“nearing collapse”? This IS collapse and does’t surprise me at all. Everyone is so disconnected (myself included) from being involved in the actual means to provide real life support i.e. farming, manufacturing of essentials, taking charge of their own lives, that we now live in a total fantasy of unending production of oil sucking industry.
Despite my own vast naiveté, I could see the merry go round of our economic lives years ago as we endlessly work to earn the money to buy the things we make that we don’t need. That sounds a bit ‘Tyler Durden’, but Fight Club did preach some anti materialism.
It’s like the timber industry here in Australia where the only thing sustaining this unsustainable logging of Old Growth forests is government subsidies. The Logging workers have been uneducated into whinging that they can’t do anything else if they can’t do logging. So, for the sake of unnecessary jobs, useless and damaging industries get propped up to maintain an illusion of positive economic activity i.e. JOBS!.
Four and a half billion years of cosmic evolution and this is what we have come to?!: A bunch of psychopaths quite successfully manipulating the flocks of sheep who can’t be blamed for being sheep. Let’s face it, sheep are peaceful by and large and don’t think beyond the green grass they are stuffing into their mouths. Though, I have been saying lately that naiveté is not a crime, but it lets the criminals get away with a lot of crime.
The JFK speech on secret societies where he states Solon decreed it a crime for any citizen to shrink from controversy is now more pertinent than ever. We must wake the other sheep.
In 2006 I bought a Concorde Chrysler at a car auction for $500. I still have it. It looks pretty worn out. Some days I feel like my car looks! ha I’ve had to spend quite a bit of money fixing different things on it..but, it’s getting me around. I can’t afford a new car. They should be giving those cars away to people who can’t afford to buy one. It’s terrible. I began laughing when I got to the 7th photo..then, “Oh My God” when I hit the 12th I burst out laughing. This is stunning.
As Forrest Gump said: STUPID IS AS STUPID DOES! This is an example of stupidity. In America, it’s the union demands that drive the new car production. One day God will probably say: “It’s time to start over with a new Adam and Eve; these folks today are just wasting everything I gave them”.
I drive a ’92 Ford & a ’66 Chevy since I cannot afford anything newer. This is as totally insane as all the empty cities that China has built all over the world !! Wasted all that concrete (mostly from the USA, do you wonder why our cement prices here are so high?) steel, wood, electrical components, for cities that will never be occupied. Just Google it if you don’t know about it. This is just as stupid and wasteful. They will eventually have to begin to scrap them all and take the losses, as they run out of room to park them “up”.
we need cars that run on water and air ..its already been invented ..be great if one could get the financing to build a car company that did that !
Holey Moley ! I usually buy my car new and keep it for 10 years .. I had no idea this was going on .. they are going to go broke .. it should be based on demand .. the idea of the latest greatest and the new designs is so ridiculous .. its to get you from point A to point B but our society makes it into this glamorous status thing.. What an epic waste of our resources !!!!!!
Thank you Dane for all the research you do !!
If they would just keep making the electric cars there would be endless sales………The prototypes that were made in USA a few years ago were flattened……much to the dismay of the public……….GOT TO KEEP SELLING THAT OIL………
As to all the disappeared Nissans, probably farmed out for new paint jobs with logos from some corporate cop force come the big squeeze. Hundreds of [censored – local police force] vehicles that just sat unused in a lot just disappeared since Saturday. Speculate they will become homeland suck.urity vehicles. 2 billions rounds, they’re up to something.
I never gave this a thought until now … It never entered my head that cars aren’t sold .. Certainly that unsold ones just piled up .. Why can’t they sell them cheap .. Yes I can answer that for myself … It would bring car prices crashing down .. Greed …. This is just another example …. Oh dear … Too much .. Thanks Dane … I look forward to reading your research everyday ..
This is jaw dropping. I just pray they don’t hide this problem by dumping them in the ocean as has happened in the past by Honda in the late 70’s. (small scale, they wanted to get ride of the super small car they started with) I have seen huge lots of cars like this just sitting year after year at port of Tacoma WA.
This just goes to show you that the .001% sew the seeds of their own demise when they suck up all the worlds resources/money – Then the people that they depend on the keep them that rich, consumers, can’t afford to buy the very goods that have made their companies rich. Now, I suspect the few billionares don’t care much about this, but certainly all the CEOs of these companies who earn whopping paychecks do. I suspect the only way to get different people in charge is to let everything crash. Maybe then people will wake up to the fact that they are the frogs in the proverbial boiling pot of water.
Had a thought awhile back about digging up dirt deep down below the aluminum line, as good as you can get anyway – under buildings, wherever – and loading it into cars to create greenhouses where the chemscum wouldn’t compromise plant growth as much. Personal beehives. Crazy perhaps, but we need desperately to master farming post-armageddon style.
Absolutely ridiculous! This farce has come back to bite big time. For years there has been talk about the affects of pollution, natural resources running out and the like. Why haven’t these companies come out with a real alternative? It’s not that they can’t or don’t have the technology, they won’t. Too much money to loose…well they can admire it in these lots as they rust away.
Interesting enough there was a video I watched the other day that showed how to modify an engine to run off hydrogen and water. I don’t know anything about modifying and whether this is a safe alternative but surely if regular guys are coming up with ideas the big automotive industry can too!
This is another concept whether feasible or not at least someone is thinking outside the box. Oddly the article states the automotive industry is not interested. Go figure. http://www.spiritscienceandmetaphysics.com/this-car-runs-for-100-years-without-refuelling-the-thorium-car/
Stupidity breeds insanity…inbreeding breeds below par elitists who have no clue as to how the real world works. I hope u all are starting to really enjoy this apocalyptic world you have bred into existence with your greed and total disregard for common sense and your fellow human beings who bought or worked to provide you with your insane profits. You used and abused without regard for the consequences and your gold will not buy any special privileges in a totally broken world.
Our financial system based on competition, promotes a colossal waist of resources. These unsold cars are only one om many similar examples.
how about recycling these unused new cars into small homes for people….
my 2009 got repossessed last year…
This article moved me from laughter to tears to disbelief to sheer frustration. How come we never knew of this before? It seems impossible. Then all these cars run on gasoline too. That hasn’t changed in over a century. Talk about supply side economics. This is crazy. Neo-liberal free market anyone? It is over and done with. Civilization has collapsed. People are hungry and all we can feed them is cars! This economic insanity of unregulated capitalism and out of control banking and insane industrial production will probably need to be covered up by a Thermonuclear WWIII.
Being older and somewhat disabled, a car would help me. Even if someone gave me a car, I couldn’t afford gas, tires or repairs. I just heard the To Big To Fail Banks are 38% larger than they were in 2008. The world has gone insane.
Thanks Dane and Russ for posting this. It is so telling.